miércoles, 16 de septiembre de 2009

lunes, 14 de septiembre de 2009

A buzz word that refers to the trend for people, firms and governments around the world to become increasingly dependent on and integrated with each other. This can be a source of tremendous opportunity, as new markets, workers, business partners, goods and services and jobs become available, but also of competitive threat, which may undermine economic activities that were viable before globalisation.
The term first surfaced during the 1980s to characterise huge changes that were taking place in the international economy, notably the
growth in international trade and in flows of capital around the world. Globalisation has also been used to describe growing income inequality between the world's rich and poor; the growing power of multinational companies relative to national government; and the spread of capitalism into former communist countries. Usually, the term is synonymous with international integration, the spread of free markets and policies of liberalisation and free trade. The process is not the result simply of economic forces. The decisions of policymakers have also played an important part, although not all governments have embraced the change warmly.
The driving force of globalisation has been multinational companies, which since the 1970s have constantly, and often successfully, lobbied governments to make it easier for them to put their skills and capital to work in previously protected national markets. Firms enjoying some national protection, and their (often unionised) workers, have been some of the main opponents of globalisation, along with advocates of
fair trade.
Despite all the talk of globalisation during the 1990s, in some respects the world economy was more integrated in the late 19th century. The labour market was certainly more global. For example, the flow of people out of Europe, 300,000 people a year in the mid-19th century, reached 1m a year after 1900. Now governments are much fussier about immigration, and people are no longer free to migrate as they wish. As for
capital markets, only in the 1990s did international capital flows, relative to the size of the world economy, recover to the levels of the few decades before the first world war.
This early globalised economy did not last for long, however. Between the two world wars, the flows of trade, capital and people collapsed to a trickle. Even before the first world war, governments started to put up the shutters against migrants and
imports. Could such a backlash against globalisation happen again

domingo, 30 de agosto de 2009

William Easterly
From The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition, 2008
Edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume
The passion that surrounds the vague term ‘globalization’ is best seen as a proxy for the long-standing debate about free-market capitalism. The zero-sum mindset, the difference between Pareto superiority and common norms of fairness, and the belief that all outcomes are caused by an intentional agent often cause communication problems between non-economists and free-market economists, who themselves often exaggerate what ‘free-market reforms’ can accomplish and endorse overly ambitious programmers of change (‘shock therapy’), underestimating problems of transition and the second best. Economists could try to understand the protests against ‘globalization’ rather than dismissing them out of hand.

How to cite this article
Easterly, William. "Globalization." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online. Palgrave Macmillan. 25 August 2009

sábado, 22 de agosto de 2009

La globalizacion económica pretende mejorar las condiciones de vida de paises en via de desarrollo y consolidar posicones de los ya industrializados, eso para muchos es por fin la solucion a todos los problemas finanacieros del pais, pero lo que no conocen son las condiciones bajo las cuales se firman estos acuerdos.
Se busca entonces que nadie se conforme solo con lo que le muestran los noticieros y analicen porque el interés de lo paises mas desarrollados en promover (imponer) la "asaleracion de mercados".